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Old Testament - Lesson 13

Lesson 13-  Bondage, Passover, and Exodus
Taught by Jeff Stone March 28, 2010

Introduction:
During this lesson we get to meet Moses, learn about the Passover and see how stubborn The Pharaoh was! As you go through the material in this lesson and on this page (and all lessons for that matter), ask yourself this question, “What Can I Learn From . . . ”

We will also consider the similarities of the Sacrament and Passover.

Scriptures Covered in This Lesson:

Short Historical Recap and Summary:

The Plagues:

  1. Rivers turn to blood (Exodus 7:17)
  2. Frogs (Exodus 8: 1–12)
  3. Lice (Exodus 8: 16–18)
  4. Swarm of Insects (Exodus 8:21–31)
  5. Murrain of Cattle (Exodus 9:3)
  6. Boils & Blains (Exodus 9: 9–11)
  7. Fire & Hail (Exodus 9:18–24)
  8. Locusts (Exodus 10: 4–19)
  9. Thick Darkness (Exodus 10: 21–22)
  10. Death of the First Born (Exodus 11)

Without going into any details of what is entailed in each plague, you can imagine how horrifying and huge these were, yet after each plague, Pharaoh hardened his heart (note that in the Bible text, it says “The Lord Hardened Pharaoh’s Heart,” However in the Joseph Smith translation we are given clarity . . . It states that Pharaoh hardened his heart, not the Lord. See Exodus 9:12 footnote “a.”

So the question is . . . What can we learn from this? Certainly we can learn to obey the Lord. We can learn humility . . . in other words, how to NOT act like the Pharaoh. Before the final plague, the Israelites are instructed to prepare for the Passover. So what is the Passover, and what can we learn from it?

Passover (Exodus 12, Exodus 13):
In the simplest terms, the Passover was an ordinance to protect the Israelites from destruction. A firstborn male lamb without blemish was to be cooked with fire and herbs and eaten in haste. The blood of the lamb was then placed on the door of the dwellings of the Israelites as a symbol of protection. That night the Lord would come and kill, as the final plague, ALL firstborn of EVERYTHING . . . man, woman, child and beast. But those with the symbol of the lamb’s blood were passed over.

The passover was a sign of the coming of the Savior and his mission and is now replaced with the Sacrament.

Symbol Passover Atonement
The Lamb A firstborn male lamb without blemish was to be used (Exodus 12:5) The Savior is the firstborn Son of God, The lamb of God without blemish (1 Peter 1:19)
The Blood Sprinkling of the blood on the doorpost saved Israel’s firstborn from death (Exodus 12:7, 22–23) The Savior’s blood which was shed as the Lamb’s cleanses the faithful ans saves them from spiritual death (Mosiah 4:2)
The Bread Unleavened bread was free of leaven or yeast which caused bread to mold and spoil easily . . . Thus removing the “spoiler” was symbolic of turning from sin and corruption (Exodus 12:8, 15–20) The Savior is the bread of life. As we partake of the Sacramental bread we are renewing our covenants and seeking repentance or turning from sin and corruption (John 6:35)
The Haste The passover meal was to be eaten in haste (Exodus 2:11) Like the Israelites, we mus respond eagerly and immediately to the deliverance that the Savior offers us.

Howard W. HunterElder Howard W. Hunter taught that at the Passover meal that is now known as the Last Supper, “the bread and wine, rather than the animals and herbs, [became] emblems of the great Lamb’s body and blood, emblems to be eaten and drunk reverently and in remembrance of him forever.

In this simple but impressive manner the Savior instituted the ordinance now known as the sacrament of the Lord’s Supper. With the suffering of Gethsemane, the sacrifice of Calvary, and the resurrection from a garden tomb, Jesus fulfilled the ancient law and ushered in a new dispensation based on a higher, holier understanding of the law of sacrifice. No more would men be required to offer the firstborn lamb from their flock, because the Firstborn of God had come to offer himself as an ‘infinite and eternal sacrifice’ (in Conference Report, Apr. 1985, 22; or Ensign, May 1985, 19).

. . . just as the Passover was a covenant of protection for ancient Israel, the sacrament is a “new covenant of safety” for us (in Conference Report, Apr. 1974, 24; or Ensign, May 1974, 18).

Jeffrey R. HollandElder Jeffrey R. Holland asked: Do we see [the sacrament] as our passover, remembrance of our safety and deliverance and redemption? With so very much at stake, this ordinance commemorating our escape from the angel of darkness should be taken more seriously than it sometimes is. It should be a powerful, reverent, reflective moment. It should encourage spiritual feelings and impressions (in Conference Report, Oct. 1995, 89; or Ensign, Nov. 1995, 68).

  • Joseph’s Brothers sold him into Egypt  because of his dreams (Genesis 37:7, 9)
  • He immediately finds favor with Potiphar (military leader)
  • He’s thrown into prison for a sin he did not commit (Lesson 11)
  • In prison he interprets (by the spirit) dreams of Pharaoh’s butler and baker
  • 2 years later Joseph interprets the dream of the Pharaoh (Genesis 41:25–28, 39–42)
  • Joseph becomes the second in command of all Egypt – second only to Pharaoh
  • Joseph’s sons Ephraim and Manasseh are born
  • Joseph’s brothers come to Egypt for food and Joseph recognizes them
  • He sends them back to bring their younger brother, Benjamin, as “proof” that they are who they claim
  • Reuben (Genesis 42:37) and Judah (Genesis 43:9) make a promise to Jacob to protect Benjamin
  • Joseph’s brothers give obeisance to Joseph as they dine together (Genesis 43: 28)
  • He sees Benjamin and cannot hold back his emotions (Genesis 43: 29–31)
  • Joseph sends them home but not before testing them
  • He sets Benjamin up to look like he is a thief
  • Judah offers himself as a sacrifice to take the punishment for Benjamin (Genesis 44:16)
  • Joseph reveals himself to his brothers (Genesis 45)
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  • Joseph, his father (Jacob/Israel) and his brothers move to Egypt and are loved by the Pharaoh
  • Jacob dies – he is carried back to Canaan and buried with his family:
    • Wife Leah
    • Parents (Isaac & Rebekah)
    • Grandparents (Abraham & Sarah)
  • The family returns to Egypt after burying their father
  • Joseph Dies at the age of 110
  • After he died, there eventually a time (about 65 years) came when the Pharaoh had never known Joseph
  • The Israelites continue to grow in number
  • Because the Pharaoh feared the Israelites they were enslaved (Exodus 1:1–14)
  • Ultimately the Pharaoh ordered the death of all male Israelites (Exodus 1:15–22)
  • Moses is born and hidden for 3 months
  • To protect him he is eventually placed in a basket and floated down the river
  • Miriam (his sister) watches as the Pharaoh’s Daughter finds Moses
  • Miriam rushes over to her (Pharaoh’s Daughter) and offers to find a Hebrew to nurse the child
  • Miriam gets her (and of course Moses’s) mother for the job
  • Moses is raised as an Egyptian (Exodus 2:1–10)
  • At Age 40, Moses sees a slave being beaten, fights the task master and kills him
  • Moses flees Egypt to Midian, meets Jethro and Marries Zipporah (Jethro’s daughter)
  • 40 Years later (Age 80) Moses is called to free the Israelites
  • Aaron (Moses’s older brother) is called to serve with Moses
  • Moses and Aaron ask the Pharaoh to allow the Israelites to leave
  • He Says “No” and is cursed by 10 plagues
  • After each plague, he continues to say “No.”
  • Finally after the 10th plague he lets Israel leave
  • As they leave he comes after them
  • Moses parts the Red Sea and Israel passes on dry ground while Pharaoh’s army is overtaken by the water
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